Dr.Öğr.Üyesi Gökhan GÖKÇE – Beyin, Sinir ve Omurga Cerrahisi Uzmanı

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Brain tumours can cause many different symptoms and signs.The most common of these symptoms are as follows:

Headache: Brain tumours often start with a headache, and this headache can often be chronic and severe.
Nausea and vomiting:Brain tumours can cause nausea and vomiting by causing an increase in pressure in the area in which it is located. They can also cause a disturbance of balance.

Seizures:Brain tumours can cause seizures by disrupting the normal function of nerve cells. These seizures can be localised or involve the whole body.

Speech, vision and hearing disorders: Brain tumours can press on the areas that control these senses and therefore cause speech, vision and hearing problems.Loss of strength in the hands and/or feet: Brain tumours can affect the areas that control movement in the body, which can lead to loss of strength in the hands and feet.
Different types of paralysis and sensory loss: Brain tumours can cause different types of paralysis and loss of sensation.
Incontinence of urine and faeces: Brain tumours can put pressure on the areas that control urine and stool and can cause loss of this control.

Diagnostic Methods:If patients consult a doctor with such symptoms, the following methods can be used to make a diagnosis:

Neurological Examination:Doctors will first assess the patient’s neurological status.During this examination, mental functions, coordination, speech, vision, hearing and motor skills will be examined. This examination can help identify the brain regions affected by the tumour.
Imaging Methods: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is commonly used to diagnose brain tumours.MRI provides detailed information about the size, location and structure of the tumour. In some cases, contrast-enhanced MRI with contrast injection can help to make the tumour more visible. MR spectroscopy can also be used to study the molecular composition within the tumour.
Functional Imaging: Functional MRI can be used to assess the relationship of important regions in the brain (for example, the speech centre and motor centres) to the tumour.
Biopsy: A biopsy may be required to accurately determine the sexuality and malignancy of the brain tumour. This is the process of taking a sample of abnormal tissue in the brain. It can be performed using methods such as needle biopsy or stereotactic needle biopsy.
Cancer Evaluation in Other Parts of the Body: If there is a possibility that the brain tumour has metastasised elsewhere, additional tests such as PET CT, scintigraphy or whole body MRI may be required.

These diagnostic methods help to determine the type of brain tumour, its location and treatment options. The treatment plan is based on this diagnostic information.

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