Dr.Öğr.Üyesi Gökhan GÖKÇE – Beyin, Sinir ve Omurga Cerrahisi Uzmanı

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Brain tumors refer to the situation where abnormal cells grow and form a mass in the brain. Brain tumors are divided into benign (non-cancerous) and malignant (cancerous). Although the exact reasons for the formation of such tumors are not known, there are some risk factors. For example, risk factors such as exposure to intense radiation or smoking have been identified. Also, in some people, family history or genetic syndromes may increase the risk of brain tumors.

Tumors can either be primary tumors originating from the brain’s own tissues or can spread from other parts of the body to form secondary tumors.

Primary brain tumors usually arise from the brain’s own cells or from the meninges, cranial nerves, pituitary gland, or pineal gland.

Meningioma is a type of tumor that usually develops on the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. These tumors are usually benign, but rarely they can become malignant. They grow slowly and usually show symptoms over many years. Although these types of tumors are usually located on the surface of the brain, they can sometimes be found in deep areas within the brain.

Vestibular Schwannoma are benign tumors that develop in the nerves related to balance and hearing that go from the inner ear to the brain. These tumors grow slowly and can cause balance problems and hearing loss.

Glial tumors are a group of tumors that include brain tumors arising from astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. These tumors can be both benign and malignant and are classified using grade grading. While grade 1 is the most benign, grade 4 represents the most malignant tumors. While some tumors are always malignant, others are generally benign but can sometimes become more aggressive. Growth rates of tumors may vary depending on their pathological characteristics.

Ependymomas are tumors that can be seen in both the brain and spinal cord, and some are benign and some are malignant. These tumors can spread through the cerebrospinal fluid to other central nervous systems.

Medulloblastomas are the most common malignant brain tumors in children and begin in the posterior fossa of the brain. They tend to spread throughout the spinal fluid and are less common in adults.

Craniopharyngiomas are benign tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and can affect the hormones that control many functions of the body. As they slowly grow, they can affect the pituitary gland and surrounding structures.

Choroid plexus tumors are tumors that develop within the ventricles and are generally benign and are mostly seen in childhood.

Pituitary adenomas that develop in the pituitary gland are generally benign tumors and can affect pituitary hormones. This can cause symptoms in various parts of the body. When they grow, they can cause partial or complete blindness by pressing on the optic nerves.

Metastatic tumors are tumors that occur as a result of cancer that started elsewhere and spread to the brain. They are more common than primary brain tumors in adults and usually occur when cancers such as lung, breast, colon, kidney or melanoma metastasize to the brain.

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