Dr.Öğr.Üyesi Gökhan GÖKÇE – Beyin, Sinir ve Omurga Cerrahisi Uzmanı

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A herniated disc is the result of a degeneration and tearing of the cartilage in the spinal cord spaces in the dorsal spine.This tear and the gel-like tissue inside (nucleus pulposus) can press on the spinal cord or nerve roots, which can lead to various symptoms. Here is more information about a herniated disc in the back:

Causes The main cause of a herniated disc is the degeneration and loss of elasticity of the spinal discs through the aging process.Over time, these degenerated discs can tear or leak outwards, which can put pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.A herniated disc can also develop as a result of sudden weight lifting, injury or trauma.

Symptoms Symptoms of a herniated disc may vary depending on the location of the hernia and the nerves it is pressing on.In general, back pain is a symptom found in every patient. Other symptoms may include
– Muscle weakness When a herniated disc presses on the spinal cord or nerve roots, it can cause weakness in the muscles controlled from this area.This can lead to loss of strength in the arms and legs.
– Sensory changes Sensory changes such as numbness, tingling or loss of sensation on the skin may occur when the spinal cord or nerve roots are compressed.
– Urinary and Defecation Problems Urinary and defecation problems such as urinary incontinence, incontinence and urination problems may occur if the herniated disc puts severe pressure on the spinal cord.

Diagnosis The diagnosis of a herniated disc is usually based on the patient’s symptoms, physical examination and imaging tests.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging method that best shows a herniated disc.

Treatment Treatment of a herniated disc may vary depending on the severity of symptoms, the patient’s lifestyle and other factors.Treatment options may include:

– Medications Painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs may be used to control pain and inflammation.
– Physical therapy Physical therapy and rehabilitation programmes can help strengthen the back muscles and improve flexibility.
– Injections Steroid injections or epidural injections can help relieve pain and reduce inflammation.
– Surgical treatment Surgical treatment may be considered if symptoms are severe or other treatment methods do not work. Surgical options may vary depending on the location and size of the hernia and the patient’s general health status.Surgical intervention usually aims to remove pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.

Surgical options may include procedures such as microdiscectomy (minimally invasive surgery), laminoplasty (opening the spinal cord), disc replacement or fusion. Which surgical option is used is determined by the surgeon depending on the patient’s condition and needs.

Back herniated disc treatment should be guided by a neurosurgeon or spine surgeon and the treatment plan should be customised to the patient’s specific condition.Early treatment is important to prevent worsening of symptoms and minimise spinal cord or nerve damage.

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